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Hiligaynon

A suffix of verbs that have a passive in-on. This suffix occurs in the following tenses:

1.) The passive impersonal imperative. Buháta iní. Do this. (búhat, buháton). Higugmaá kag tahúra (-úda) ang ímo ginikánan. Love and respect your parents, (higúgma, higugmaón; táhud, tahúron, tahúdon).

2.) The passive negative past. Walâ níya pagbuháta iní. He did not do this. Walâ ni la pagtumána ang íla katungdánan. They have not fulfilled their duties, (túman, tumánon).

3.) The passive negative present. Sa karón walâ na níya pagaúmha iníng bánglid. He now no longer tills this slope, (umá, úmhon). Tungúd sang kadamuón sang íla mga páhò, walâ na níla pagaisípa, kóndì ginosokób na lang sa pasungán. Owing to the great quantity of their mangoes they no longer count them, but measure them by the bushel. (ísip, isípon). Ngáa man nga walâ mo pagapatindogá ang halígi? Why are you not setting up the post? (pa, tíndog, tindogón).



abá

Hiligaynon

(B) The back, shoulder-blades, scapula; the breast of a bird, especially of a fowl; to carry on the back, put on the back. Ibutáng mo iníng bayóong sa abá sang karabáw. Put this bag on the buffalo's back. Toktoká ang abá sang manók. Chop up the breast of the chicken. Ginpaabá akó níya sa pagtabók sa subâ. He carried me on his back across the river. Paábhan mo siá. Get hold of his back. Grasp him behind by the shoulders. (see likód, talúdtud, dúghan, pétso, tíbong, patíbong).


ában

Hiligaynon

To finish, take away or off (a loom or the like). Abána ang ákon háblon sa madalî nga saráng mahímò. Get my cloth off the loom as soon as possible. Ginában sang subâ ang ámon dútà. The river has washed away our land. Abánon mo na ang íya nga balayoón, kay nagtú-gon siá nga, kon maában na, ipadalá sa íya sa waláy lídan. Finish the cloth for making dresses, for she ordered it to be sent to her at once, when it was ready. Abáni akó sing duhá ka patádyong. Get me off the loom two native skirts, i. e. cloth sufficient for two such skirts called patádyong. Dílì makaában ang subâ siníng umá, kay may pángpang nga dínglì. The river cannot carry (wash) away this farm-land, for its bank is of hard sandstone. Naában na ang tátlo ka búlan sa napúlò nga inogbulúthù níya sa koléhyo. Three months have gone by already of the ten he has to study at college. Ginában níya ang dakû níya nga mánggad sa mga kalingáwlingáwan kag waláy pulús nga mga kahinguyángan. He spent his great wealth on diversions and useless extravagance. (see hingápus, hingapús, kúhà, búhin, áb-ab, etc.).


áblang

Hiligaynon

(B) Width, breadth, to widen, broaden, to make wide or wider. Sádto ánay makitíd ang dálan, karón nagáblang na. Formerly the road was narrow, now it has widened. Gináblang níla ang plása. They widened the public square. Ginpaáblang níla ang plása. They have had the public square widened. Sogóa ang pánday nga ablangón níya ang lamísa. Order the carpenter to make the table wider. Naablangán akó siníng takúd. This shutter (door, etc.) is too broad for me, or appears to me to be very broad or too broad. (see lápad).


abráso

Hiligaynon

(Sp. abrazo) Embrace, clasping, hugging; to embrace, clasp, hug, press to one's bosom. Sang pagabút níya sa balay ginabrasóhan siá sang íya nga ilóy. When he arrived home, his mother clasped him to her bosom. Indì siá magpaabráso. She does not allow herself to be embraced. Nagabrasoháy silá. They embraced each other. (see hakús, púgus).


ábung, abúng

Hiligaynon

To intercept, stop, catch (by crossing one's way, or the like). Pinaabúngan (Pinaabungán) silá níya sa mga táo. He had them caught by his men. He ordered his men to catch them. (see dakúp, lipót, bángan).


adá-áda

Hiligaynon

To receive in trust, to acquire with the prospect of ultimate ownership, to have some property provisionally settled on oneself during the lifetime of the testator (especially applied to lands distributed to their children by parents with the stipulation that the parents retain the ownership as long as they live, and may at any time change the previous arrangement). Nagaadá-áda siá siníng (or ginaadá-áda níya iní nga) bántud sámtang (miéntras) buhì ang íya ginikánan. This enclosed field is in his possession or administration during the lifetime of his parent (with the promise of ultimate ownership after the death of his parent). Ginpaadá-adahán níya ang íya mga anák sing mga dútà. He distributed some lands among his children.


adbertí, adbertír

Hiligaynon

(Sp. advertir) To advise, give warning, instruct, give notice, call attention to. Adbertihá siá sinâ. Bring it to his notice. Notify him about it. Call his attention to it. Ginadbertí níya akó nga--. He sent me word that--. He advised me to--. (see tíngga, tíngkaw, paálam, pahibaló, abíso, paabíso).


adiós

Hiligaynon

(Sp. adios) God bless you. God speed you. Good-bye. Farewell. Also used as a verb, mostly with pa-. Nagpaadiós siá sa ákon or ginpaadiosán níya akó. He bade me good-bye. Ihátag mo iní sa íya nga ipaadiós ko sa íya. Give him this from me as a farewell keepsake. (see paálam).


ágay

Hiligaynon

To trickle, dribble, run down in drops, flow slowly and gently. Naga-*ágay ang mapaít níya nga lúhà kag nagatúlò sa íya kamót. Her bitter tears are trickling down and dropping on her hand. Ináng kalisúd nagpaágay sang íya mga lúhà. That trouble brought tears into her eyes. Ang masakit nga bátà ginapaagáyan sing madámù nga mga lúhà sang íya ilóy. The sick child is being much wept over by its mother. Nagbúswang na ang íya hubág kag nagágay ang nánà. His boil burst and the pus flowed out. Nagpangabúdlay siá sing támà sa ínit nga ang masulúg nga bálhas nagágay sa tanán nga mga buhôbúhò sang íya pánit. He worked very hard in the heat of the sun, so that streams of perspiration poured from all the pores of his skin. (see tubúd, túlò, talabirís, tululágay, ílig).


ágbay

Hiligaynon

To put one's arms on or round another's shoulder. Nagalakát silá nga nagaagbayánay. They are walking with their arms round each other's shoulders. Agbayí siá. Place your arm on his shoulder. Indì ka magágbay sa íya. Don't put your arm on his or her shoulder. Paagbayón mo ang masakít. Let the sick person put his arm on your shoulder. Sa dakû nga kakáhas nagágbay siá sa kay Fulána, apang dáyon siá níya sinúmbag kag siníkway. With great boldness he put his arm on Miss N.N.'s shoulder, but immediately he received a slap from her and was repulsed with contempt.


ágda

Hiligaynon

To invite, to ask or request one's presence. Agdahá siá. Invite him. Ginágda mo na ang tanán mo nga mga ábyan? Have you invited all your friends? Ang áton piésta pagaagdahán ko sing madámù nga mga Párì. I shall invite many priests to assist at our feast. I shall request the presence of many priests at our feast. Ari na ang mga inágda. The invited guests are now here. Nalipatán níya sa pagágda sánday Pedro. Paagdahón ko siá sa íla or ipaágda ko silá sa íya. He forgot to invite Peter and his friends or Peter and his family. I'll make him invite them. Padálhan ko siá kuntánì sing sulát nga iágda ko sa íya, ápang walâ gánì akó kasáyod kon diín siá nagapuyô karón. I should like to send him a letter of invitation, but I do not know where he is staying at present. (see abiár, hágad, kángay, )


agóng

Hiligaynon

A trickster, sneak, cheat, thief in a small way; to trick, cheat, deceive, obtain under some plausible pretext. Ginagóng níya ang ákon páyong. He deprived me of my umbrella by a mean trick. Agongá ang íya kálò or agongi siá sang íya kálò. Get hold of his hat by some stratagem. Likawí ang mga agóng kag makáwat. Avoid sneaks and thieves. (see dáyà, límbong, tíkas, takáb, káwtì, lág-it).


ágsa

Hiligaynon

To work another's fields for part of the produce. Agsa ko lang iníng umá. I work this farm only as a tenant. Sín-o ang ginaagsahán mo? Who is the owner of your leasehold? Ang agsadór ko amó ang nagaágsa sang ákon dútà. My tenant is the one who works my farm. Ginapaágsa níya ang íya dútà sa isá ka salalígan nga agsadór. He let his land on lease to a trustworthy tenant. Kon may lúyag ka ipaágsa ko sa ímo ang ákon umá. If you like, I'll let you have my farm in tenure by lease. Agsahí siá. Become his tenant. Take his land in tenure by lease. Take some of his land on lease.


águm

Hiligaynon

To obtain, reach, enjoy the possession of, gain, get, acquire, reap. Ang mga matárung magaágum or magahiágum kunína sang himáyà sa lángit. The just will finally enjoy the glory of heaven. Pagaagúman ko gid ang búnga sang ákon ginkabudlayán. I shall surely reap the fruit of my labours. Ipaágum mo sa íya ang ígò nga bálus. Grant him a fitting reward. Paagúma siá sang ímo kamót. Let him feel your hand i.e. strike, box, slap, hit him. Inagúman na níya ang íya nga ginhándum sang madámù nga mga túig. He has now reached the goal desired for many years. (see dángat, ángkon).


ahâ

Hiligaynon

To beseech, ask fervently, insist on obtaining some favour, importune. Nagahâ siá sa ákon sing bulúng sa pilás. He asked me insistently for some medicine for the wound. Ginahaán akó níya sing diótay nga humáy, kay nawád-an siá. He earnestly begged a little rice of me, for he had run short of it. Dilì matúod nga akó amó ang nagahâ sa íla, kóndì, hinonóo gánì, silá nagpangáyò sa ákon. It is not true that I importuned them, but, on the contrary, they asked me.


aháng

Hiligaynon

Daring, boldness; to be or become daring, bold, impertinent. Nagaháng siá galî or ginahangán níya galî! Was he really so bold! Magaháng ka lang sa pagkúhà sing lubí or ahangí lang ang pagkúhà sing lubí. Pluck up courage and take a coconut. (see ahás, dahás, káhas).


ahát

Hiligaynon

To do something prematurely, before the regular or proper time or even against one's inclination. Ahatá lang ang pagpópò sang páhò. Pluck the mango, even though it is not yet quite ripe. Ginaahát níla ang ságing nga línghod. They are eating unripe bananas. Ahatón mo ang buót mo sa paglakát, bisan índì ka malúyag. Make up your mind to go, although you do not like to. Masakít karón ang íya solóksolók, kay man gin-*ahát níya ang mga sirig-wélas nga hiláw. Of course he has stomach-ache, he has eaten green plums.


ákig

Hiligaynon

(H) Anger, ire, wrath, rage, passion, choler, fury, indignation; to be or make angry, become angry, irate, wroth, wrathful, furious, indignant. Indì ka magákig or mangákig. Don't be angry. Tî, kon may salâ ang bátà mo akígi kag hanóta. Well, if your boy is at fault, show him your displeasure and give him a whipping. Indì mo siá pagakígan, kay dílì siá amó ang may salâ. Don't be angry with him, for he is not the one to blame. Indì ka ánay maghámbal sa íya, kay básì maákig siá. Don't talk to him now, for he may get angry. Inakígan níya gid ang ámon paglatás sa íya nga talámnan. He flew in a rage, because we had cut straight across his field.


ákon

Hiligaynon

My, mine; by or through me; sa ákon-me; to, on, upon, from, away from, towards, in, at, into me. Ang ákon kálò. My hat. Akon iní nga baláy. This house is mine, -belongs to me. Yanâ nga umá ákon gid. That field is my own, -belongs to me alone. Dílì ákon iní nga tulún-an. This book is not mine or does not belong to me. Akon ginhímò iní. This was done by me, I did it. Akon siá pagaluasón. Through me he will get free, I will free him. Walâ siá paghigúgma sa ákon. He has no love for me, does not love me at all. Kon sa ákon lang walâ akó sing kabilinggan. As far as I am concerned I have nothing against it. Nagapalapít siá sa ákon. He is coming towards me, is approaching me. Sa dak-ú nga katístis ginhímò níya iní sa ákon. He did this to me very maliciously. Kútub sang paghalín níya dirí sa ákon túbtub nián walâ ko siá makítà. Since he went away from me until now I have not seen him. Sa ákon bántà índì na siá magbálik sa ákon. In my opinion he will not return to me any more. Kon kís-a dumángat sa ákon ang masubô nga panghunâhúna--. Now and then sad reflections come upon me--. (see nákon, ko, ímo, nímo, mo, íya, níya, ámon, námon, áton, náton, ta, ínyo, nínyo, íla, níla).

N.B. The difference between the use of "ákon" and "nákon, ko" is as follows:

1) in the meaning of a possessive pronoun "ákon" is put before and "nákon, ko" are put after the word they respectively qualify, e.g. Ang ákon idô. Ang idô nákon (ko). My dog. Ang ákon amáy tigúlang na. Ang amay nákon (ko) tigúlang na. My father is now old.

2) in the meaning of a predicative adjective "ákon" is always used and never "nákon" or "ko". Akon iní nga pínggan or Iní nga pínggan ákon. This plate is mine, belongs to me. Dilì ákon iní nga páhò or Iní nga páhò dílì ákon. This mango is not mine, does not belong to me.

3) in the meaning of a personal pronoun with the preposition "s", "ákon" is used exclusively and never "nákon" or "ko" e.g. Ginhátag níya inâ sa ákon. He gave that to me. Nagsúmbag siá sa ákon. He hit (boxed) me.

4) in the meaning of "by me, through me" as a personal agent "ákon" always stands before the verb and can only be used, if the verb is not negatived. Akon ginbúhat iní. This was done by me. Sa waláy duhádúha ákon siá pagaduáwon. Of course, he will be visited by me i.e. I will pay him a visit. Dílì balá matúod nga ákon siá nabayáran? Isn't it true, that he was paid by me i.e. that I paid him? "Nákon" and "ko", if employed in such sentences, take their place invariably after the verb: Ginbúhat ko (nákon) iní. Sa ualáy duhádúha pagaduáwon ko (nákon) siá. Dílì balá matúod nga nabayáran ko (nákon) siá?

But if the verb is negatived "ákon" cannot be used; "nákon" or "ko" must then be employed and be placed between the negative adverb and the verb: Walâ ko (nákon) pagbuháta iní. This was not done by me. Dílì ko (nákon) malipatán iní. I cannot forget it. Indì ko (nákon) malíngkang iníng bató, kay mabúg-at gid. I cannot move this stone, for it is very heavy. Indì pa nákon (índì ko pa) mapúy-an ang bág-o ko nga baláy, kay walâ ko pa (ualâ pa nákon) pagbutangí sing mga galamitón nga kinahánglan. I cannot live in my new house yet, because I have not yet put in the necessary furniture. Walâ ko (nákon) siá pagagdahá kag índì man nákon (índì ko man) siá pagagdahón, kay maláin siá sing pamatásan. I neither invited him nor will I invite him, because he has vicious habits.

5) in sentences where the verb is preceded by a quasi-auxiliary or by adverbs of time or place like "saráng, buót, diín, dirí, dirâ, sán-o pa, etc." "nákon" or "ko" should be used before the verb, even if the latter is not negatived, e.g. Saráng ko mabúhat iní. I can do it. Buót ko ímnon iníng bino. I wish or like to drink this wine. Sán-o ko pa (sán-o pa nákon) mapatíndog ang bág-o nga baláy? When shall I be able to build the new house? Diín ko (nákon) makítà ang kwárta? Where can I find the money?

The foregoing examples and rules are applicable to all personal and possessive pronouns, "ímo, íya, ámon, áton, ínyo, íla" following "ákon" and "nímo, mo, níya, námon, náton, ta, nínyo, níla" following "nákon, ko".


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