The letter "n" in Visayan is pronounced as in English. If often combines with a following "g" to represent a nasal sound that can only be learned by hearing. A tilde over the "n" or over the "g" indicates that they form together a double consonant having the said nasal sound, e.g. nga, ngílo, ngí-ngi, ngóy-ngoy, ngurî-ngúrì, etc. There is something of the same effect in the English words "singing, ringing, swinging", but the "ng" of Visayan has a stronger nasalization.
A potential verbal prefix denoting the past tense passive and corresponding to the future ma-It can frequently be translated by "got, was, became", e.g. nagútum siá. He was hungry. Nadakúp siá. He got caught. Nabúdlay siá. He became weary (tired, exhausted). Na-is often interchangeable with gin-, though the rule is that gin-should be used, when the agent is expressly stated and na-, when the agent is not determined, e.g. gingubâ sang bágyo ang ámon baláy. Our house was destroyed by the hurricane. Nagubâ ang ámon baláy. Our house was destroyed.
A shortened form of nagka-, e.g. nahádluk (nagkahádluk) siá. He was (became) afraid. Nadágdag (nagkadágdag) ang pínggan. The plate fell down, etc.
In combination with a negative: Not any more, not any longer, not again, never again. Indì ka na magbúhat sinâ. You shall not do it any more. Dílì na siá matámbok. He is not fat any longer. Walâ na siá magbálik dídto. He did not go back there again. He never returned to that place. Walâ na silá sing humáy. They have no rice any more. (see the following na).
Now, at last, already, at present, so soon. Manyága na kitá. Let us now have dinner. Adlaw na, bángon kamó. It is already broad day-light, get up. Tápus na? Finished so soon (already)? Tápus na. This is the end of it. Finished. Ari na siá. He is now here. N.B. The na in the Visayan language is much more used than the "now, already" of English and may often be left out in translation without impairing the sense. (see karón, don, ron, kár-on).
(B) To be or become low, of little height; to shorten, lower. Nagnabâ ang pángpang sang subâ. The river-bank has become low. Nanabaán akó siníng síya. This chair is too low for me. Utda ang tiíl sang lamésa, agúd magnabâ. Cut the legs of the table so that it may be low. (see nobô).
Understanding, inkling, etc. See naátwan, namasngaán. (Nabádwan seems to be derived from the obsolete baló, now always hibalô).
Shallowness, little depth; to be or become low, shallow (of a river, or the like). Nagnábaw na ang túbig sang subâ. The water of the river-has gone down,-is now quite shallow. Mahapús ang ámon pagtabók sa subâ, kay nanabáwan kamí sang túbig. It was easy for us to cross the river, because the water was shallow. (see nobô-to be low, of little height; dálum-to be deep; táas-to be high).
(B) For nahubág from hubág-to swell, bulge; break down, cave in.
(B) For nabusúg from busúg-satiated, etc.
A prefix denoting the past tense active (transitive and intransitive), e.g. Nagsilíng siá sa ákon--. He told me--. Nagsulát siá sing binaláybay. He wrote a poem. Sín-o ang nagbúhat sinâ? Who did it? Who has done it (that)? Nagdálum ang búhò. The hole has become deep. Nagláin ang íya ginháwa. She (has) swooned. She did not feel well. Naghalín na siá. He has gone away. (see nanag-).
A hardwood tree and the timber thereof. (see nára; the Sp. narra is from this Philippine word).
A prefix denoting the present tense active (transitive and intransitive), e.g. Nagahámpang, nagabása, etc. siá. He is playing, reading, etc. Nagahunâhúnà akó nga--. I think that--. Si nánay nagahímos sang panyága. Mother is getting dinner ready. Nagapabugál silá. They are proud. Nagahalín na silá. They are leaving now. Nagadulúm na ang kalibútan. It is getting dark. Nagabahâ ang subâ. The river is in flood. Daw sa nagabúg-at na ang íya ginabátyag. It seems that his condition is becoming serious.
A prefix denoting the present tense and used mostly with intransitive verbs, e.g. Nagakalisúd siá. He is in trouble. Nagakalípay siá. He is glad. Nagakasubô siá. He is sad. (The corresponding forms for the future, imperative and past are "magaka-, magka-, and nagka-"; the infinitive is "pagka-").
A prefix composed of "naga-and pa-" and denoting the present tense active with the added meaning of "pa", e.g.
a.) Nagapamanílà siá. He is going to Manila, is on his way to Manila. Nagapabúkid siá. He is on his way to the mountains.
b.) Nagapabugál siá. He is proud, haughty, takes on airs. Nagapabungól siá. He is deaf to admonitions, etc., he does not want to listen. Nagapaugút siá. He is getting angry, exasperated.
c.) Nagapabúhat siá sing bág-o nga baláy. He is having a new house built. Nagapatíndog siá sing halígi. He is putting up a post. The corresponding forms for the infinitive, future and past are "pagpa-, magapa-, nagpa-, and magpa-" for the imperative.